DISCLAIMER Only contribute if you have made any modifications to your Switch that are not approved by Nintendo. Do NOT submit a report if you have not modified your Switch in any way possible. That is because such a case has a or close to 0% chance of being banned which will skew the data. Having clean error logs is confirmed to have banned one user according to Nintendo. Exercise caution clearing error logs moving forward.Source Use of an illegal ROMID has been confirmed to have banned someone. DevMenu is highly likely what Nintendo was referring to. Source Semi-Official Nintendo Switch Ban Form Ban? Y/N If Yes, provide proof (video preferred) SX OS used? Y/N Did you connect to the Internet with SX OS and/or to activate the license? Y/N Did you play any .XCI files online with a certificate/header? Y/N Do you have a certificate/header ban (look for error code 2124-4025)? Y/N Lowest SX Version used when Online/Offline (NOT Switch System Firmware)? X.X/N What do you use Non-TX LayeredFS for? Backups/Modding/Both/N Did you connect to the Internet with a non-TX LayeredFS Inject? Y/N Played online w/ Non-TX Layered FS Injects? Y/N Used DevMenu? Y/N Installed any .NSP? Y/N Did you connect to the Internet w/ any .NSP installed? Y/N Did you play any .NSP installed online? Y/N Did you perform any CDN/Freeshop downloading with your own Switch's certificate? Y/N Backups updated? CFW/OFW/Both/N Homebrew/non-TX CFW Used? Y/N (Specify homebrew used/crashes) Connect to Internet w/ homebrew/non-TX CFW? Y/N Connect to eShop while using CFW/homebrew? Y/N AutoRCM? TX/Hekate/Both/N Did you update your firmware w/o burning fuses? Y/N Did you install the exFAT update offline? Y/N receive-lp1.dg.srv.nintendo.net blocked and/or "Don't Share Usage Information" ticked under "Other Settings"? Y/N What firmware(s) were you on when you cleared error logs prior to going online? Y: X.X.X/N Disabled "Send Error Information" in System Settings? Y/N Wi-Fi settings deleted? Y/N Airplane mode? Y/N Auto-Update Software Enabled in System Settings? Y/N Can you use the eShop on the Switch? Y/N Can you login to Nintendo's website using your linked Nintendo Account? Y/N Do you get error code 2137-7403 trying to update your system firmware? Y/N Console/Account Region(s) Trimmed .XCI? Y/N Additional Comments Hello, GBATemp! Welcome to (yet another) thread about banned Switches! "What makes yours more special than the others?" I'm glad you asked, skeptical temper! This thread is dedicated towards compiling the actions of all Switch owners and comparing them to those who were banned and those who were not. I've also included some other neat bits of information such as detailing what each question means, the different types of bans, and analyzing what actions are more likely to get you banned (and why, if possible). Let's get started, shall we? Here is a link to a Google Doc Spreadsheet filled with Switch user actions along with their ban statuses:Click Here Compiled Report of Switch User Actions Breakdown of the Spreadsheet Different Types of Switch Bans After Being Banned Yet-to-be Recognized Ban Causes Removed Categories Miscellaneous Remarks Credits This is where you will find information on how the data is compiled and put together as well as a link to the data in its rawest form (publicly). There is also a section on how the dataset can potentially be expanded given certain circumstances are met. Submissions through GBATemp If you are going to reply to this thread or you see someone who has been banned but don't know how to get the most information out of them as quickly as possible, use the above format. I will also be on the lookout for users outside of this thread, especially if they are banned. If you don't mind keeping an extra set of eyes open, we can make this data set as holistic as possible! Submissions through Gmail Let's say you or someone you know was banned but they don't want to go through the hassle of joining GBATemp (who wouldn't want to be a part of us?) I've set up a Google Doc Form to fill out for those in such a boat. There is also a link you can find in the spreadsheet itself. The only requirement is that you will need a Gmail account because the "Proof" portion of the survey requires you to upload it to your Google Drive. Also, I will try my best to check no less than once a week so if you submitted a form and its not there yet, give me more time. Expanding the Questionnaire Although there's many questions covering a broad range of causes, obviously I may have missed one or two minor details that could end up explaining certain bans. Or there are certain patterns users may feel need further research in order to properly study Nintendo's ban strategies. No new categories/questions will be added unless there is proof that a user has been banned for something that is not posed as a current question. The reason for this is because adding more and more unnecessary questions will not only create large amounts of empty white space, but may require additional questioning from users who have already contributed (which is inefficient). Alright, by now you've probably glanced at the Christmas-colored spreadsheet and are wondering what everything means or want to submit a report of your own. I will explain what each of the columns represent as well as additional information for certain columns as needed. DatesDates next to usernames are the most recent dates that the user has gone without being banned. These may be useful to reference when future banwaves happen.ColorsFor your viewing pleasure, not only is all of the data logged as "Y" for "Yes" and "N" for "No", each cell is colored to the corresponding action. Basically green=good, red=bad, and blue=somewhere in the middle.BanWhile there are multiple types of bans and this category doesn't specify which, its more useful for filtering purposes to know whose been banned in any capacity.SXIf you have used SX OS in any capacity, offline or otherwise.SX OnlineIndicates whether a user used SX OS with an active Internet connection and/or if they activated their license online via the console.XCI + Cert Online.XCI files injected/dumped with a certificate so it can be played online. It should also be noted that injecting a foreign certificate will flag you for a ban as noted by the well-known hacker, SciresM, here. There is also at least one user who reported a ban despite injecting a certificate from the same game as the one he injected it into so assume matching certificates are unsafe otherwise.Cert BanNintendo has the ability to discern when certificates/headers are used illegitimately as compared to the 3DS era. The relevant error code is 2124-4025 which occurs when you try to use the online service of a game that contains the banned certificate/header. Certificate/header also denote the same term.SX VersionWhat version of SX OS used. In the event that anyone has used multiple versions, the lower one is logged. The one exception is if the OS was used offline on a lower firmware, but is used online at a higher firmware.Non-TX LayeredFSDANGEROUS A file swapping hack that was perverted to play backups. This one has caused most of the bans known to date. TX also began supporting it in SX OS, but the ones who use it in those cases aren't using it for backup launching hence the 'Non-TX' distinction.Non-TX LayeredFS OnlineDANGEROUS Reserved for users who used LayeredFS to play backups with an active Internet connection. Can include people who use it for modding as well.Played Non-TX LayeredFS OnlineDANGEROUS Using LayeredFS to play backups directly online. Many reasons why this is unsafe not limited to piracy, mismatching files, and a chance of crashing/errors due to it being a WIP hack.DevMenuDANGEROUS An app that was leaked from an EDEV unit. For reference, this is what I am talking about. A banned user received an e-mail from Nintendo that they were banned due to an illegal ROMID which can only refer to DevMenu. Outside of the program being copyrighted, this can and will get you banned.NSPSimilar to .CIA for the 3DS, .NSP is the file format used for titles installed into the Switch. Console must be hacked to install these so simply uninstalling them is not good enough to avoid a ban.NSP OnlineHaving an Internet connection with .NSP files installed either on the system or the SD card but not playing them online.Played NSP OnlineUsed the online services of a .NSP game which can be a major red flag to Nintendo since fake tickets are needed to launch .NSPs you do not own.CDNDANGEROUS Downloading eShop and update content from Nintendo's CDN servers whether through Freeshop (or its derivatives) and/or a CDN downloader with your own console's certificate. Nintendo can track which console downloads what so the risk of being banned for using these is high.Updated BackupsGames can be updated by simply having their icon in the home menu and they do not need a certificate/ticket to be updated. Category is stratified between CFW and OFW since some users tend to believe it is safer to update backups in OFW rather than CFW (which has been shown to be false).Homebrew/non-TX CFW UsedUsage of any homebrew and/or non-SX OS CFW including crashes and error reports.Homebrew/non-TX CFW OnlineUsage of any homebrew and/or non-SX OS CFW with an Internet connection.eShop in CFW/homebrewAccessing the eShop while using homebrew and/or CFW. SciresM provides a nice write-up on how eShop access works here which can explain why it may not be safe.AutoRCMCorruption of the Switch's BCT. It is unknown how TX corrupts the BCT hence the distinction in the spreadsheet.Fuse MismatchUpdating the firmware without burning fuses meaning running a firmware that is foreign to the number of fuses currently burnt in the console.exFAT OfflineObtaining the exFAT update without connecting online which involves being on the latest firmware. There are multiple ways of achieving this but all involve hacking one way or another so they are not separated here.GDPR BlockA full explanation of this can be found here. In short, you can toggle a certain setting for EUR accounts or block a specific URL to eliminate some of the telemtry sent to Nintendo.Logs ClearedThere is a module known as nx-dreport that clears error logs contained within your device. For best results, this should be run before the console is given any connection to the Internet. Based on this tweet from SciresM, running nx-dreport on firmwares 5 and above may be unsafe. Additionally, Nintendo told a user they were banned for having gone from error logs to no error logs.Disabled Error ReportingNot having "Send Error Information" checked under the "System" tab which is at the bottom of "System Settings"WiFi DeletedIf not in Airplane Mode, the console will automatically connect to any Wi-Fi settings saved if in range. The Switch also has hidden Wi-Fi settings in the form of Nintendo Hotspots that will connect the console online if close enough to one of these.Airplane ModeEnabling Airplane Mode when using any form of hacks. Airplane Mode can get disabled if switching between docked and handheld modes.Auto-Update SoftwareWhether "Auto-Update Software" is toggled on or off.eShopA test to see if the console is banned or not by trying to go to the eShop. May also not work if the account is banned but those are rare.Unbanned AccountCan be checked by trying to log into Nintendo's website using the Nintendo Account linked to the console.AtumIdentifies if banned from Nintendo's CDN servers by checking for the error code 2137-7403 when trying to update the system firmware.RegionThe region of the user, both console and account if they differ.CommentsThe questionnaire's not perfect and there might be something that banned/non-banned users do to retain their particular status. Feel free to add anything that is NOT obvious after answering the questionnaire.ProofEvidence that said user was banned. Video is preferred due to the prevalence of forged imagery via Photoshop. This section is merely for those who are curious about the different types of ban and wish to find out what type of ban(s) they have. This is not to be used to correlate which actions can lead to which type of ban as a lot of information is tied to games, consoles, and accounts. Certificate/Header BansGames require a cert in order to be able to play online. If a user injects a certificate from a different game, it is flagged on Nintendo's servers. From there, they can choose to implement a cert ban meaning any games injected with that header cannot go online. Relevant error code is 2124-4025. SourceBanned Nintendo AccountsThe Switch utilizes Nintendo Accounts for tracking Gold Coins, eShop purchases, and several other things. Nintendo can ban accounts but its rather ineffective by itself in preventing a hacker from going online. That is because accounts are free, unlike consoles, hence why these are usually accompanied with a console ban.Normal Switch BansEvery Switch comes with a certificate much like cartridges so when Nintendo bans a console, they ban that certificate. To be exact, they're restricting that console from using the "dauth" server which handles eShop content and online play. The system and games can be updated through the "atum" server. However, the atum server has indirect access to the CDN through Freeshop-related tools or Update Download Progress from your console which is why CDN tools work with banned console certificates.SuperbansIf excessive CDN downloading is performed with a banned console certificate, Nintendo can ban that cert from the "atum" server meaning that Switch can no longer perform any online activities. This means no eShop, no online play, and no updates. The relevant error code is 2137-7403. So you just found out you were banned and you may be asking, what can I still do? There's actually plenty of things you can do depending on your ban type. Console bans are the most common type so assume I am referring to that in case it is not specified/clear. Game and System updates can still be possible for the Switch's lifetime. Probably has something to do with directly affecting the user experience as well as ironing some bugs that you would otherwise be unable to fix if Nintendo stopped you from receiving them. Not to mention that if you accidentally delete a game update after installing it, that game will no longer work without the update. Would you believe me if I told you could still buy/download stuff from the eShop? All you have to do is go to Nintendo's website, login with the Nintendo Account on your banned console, then proceed to acquired anything you would normally want. Turns out if you go to User/Profile (top left of the Home menu), go into "User Settings", then select "Update Download Progress", your console will begin downloading anything you just acquired from their website. Note: this only works so long as Nintendo has not restricted your Account from accessing their site meaning you don't have an account ban. These bans are rare so always perform this check to rule out the possibility. You can try un-linking your Nintendo Account from your banned console. One user, by the name of VegaNovus, supposedly got Nintendo to un-link his account by telling Nintendo he cannot access his Switch at all. If you tell them your console is banned and you want to un-link, chances may not be as high as the former dialogue option. At any rate, this is only useful if your console only is banned; if your account is banned, then there is no point in un-linking it. Based on the above, you can acquire new eShop titles after being banned and if you archive any of your installed titles, you can redownload them at any time without worrying about your ban status. But what happens if you accidentally delete any of your installed games? Unfortunately, the only workaround we have involves using eXhop, a homebrew app that works like eShop, to download those titles again. It bypasses the check if you are banned or not, but the titles will not work unless your account has legitimately purchased/downloaded them previously. While unprecedented, there is a possibility Nintendo may remove full CDN access to a banned console if it uses eXhop or any CDN downloader. Online Play is a stretch because you would need a certificate ban only. Based on how certificate bans work, they restrict online access with that specific certificate. But if you were to try going online with a non-banned certificate (and your console/account are both not banned), it will work. Another thing to note is that since Nintendo banned that certificate, they can also ban your console as well as your account because they are associated with the certificate when you went online. This section will be filled with my and other people's ideas for potential unidentified causes for bans. That way, if you or someone you know is filling out the questionnaire and something doesn't add up, it might be worth consulting this section for something that was missed. Who knows, if enough people start reporting the same thing that leads to a ban, it can be officially added to the questionnaire! Trimmed .XCI.XCI files are raw dumps of Switch cartridges. However, they are filled with garbage data to ensure the game fits on the pre-determined-size cartridges. Theoretically, if Nintendo sees that you are running a trimmed .XCI, then they know for sure you violated their Terms of Service and either engaged in piracy, hacked your console, or both. The problem is they won't know that is is trimmed unless they know the original file size at which point they already know you are running a .XCI file which is grounds for a Terms of Service violation.Soldered Pin 10Shorting pin 10 is one of the ways to boot RCM so if its constantly being shorted such as due to a soldering job, there is a possibility Nintendo may ban users for this if there is a firmware update that can detect it.Method of Payload DeliveryRequested by @OhhSheetz , this can be added to those who fill out the questionnaire and wonder if Nintendo is able to detect certain methods of sending payloads over others.Online Cheating/HackingWhile people may have gotten away with this in the past, several Splatoon hackers would say that Nintendo isn't tolerating any cheating in online games on the Switch. Using hacks/cheats in private lobbies does not count.SD card Recorded ErrorsIts possible Nintendo is logging data onto inserted SD cards. This can easily be tracked by keeping an eye on the capacity of the SD card. The recommendation would be to have it as empty as possible and to not initiate actions that would decrease the capacity. You will notice on the Google Doc Spreadsheet that there is a tab titled "Removed Categories". This is full of questions that used to be asked on the Semi-Official Report Form but were taken off due to various reasons. In an effort to not make the data collected completely null, it has been separated from the rest of the data so people can refer to it in the event that it may be prove useful in the future. Injected Cert using Layered FS DANGEROUS Assuming you are now an expert on LayeredFS, you use LayeredFS to inject a certificate into the backup of your choosing to play online. Not gonna beat a dead horse or repeat the glaring red warning slightly above. This category has been moved due to a possible redundancy in ban risk associated with LayeredFS. In short, since people have been banned for using LayeredFS solely offline, this category presents little to no extra risk. Not to mention that there are very few people who have done this and were banned (some people have not been banned despite doing this). The purpose of this thread is solely for the collection of information that may pertain to bans. Data for people who are not yet banned can still be collected to compare to those who are banned to rule out causes for bans. The purpose of this thread is NOT to speculate or defend potential reasons for bans. None of us (as far as I know) work for Nintendo so we cannot confirm who they ban, how they ban, or when they ban. All of the data collected in this thread is so far comprised of reports that originate from GBATemp, both from within this thread and anywhere else on the Switch sub-section. While I would love to collect data from outside, there are simply too many places to check. If you do see someone whose data is worth adding, either let me know or collect the data using the form and report it here. "When you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth." -Sherlock Holmes May not be much of an incentive, but I promise to like any posts that contribute towards providing new information to this thread such as new categories, metadata for Nintendo Switch bans, or contributing new data. Grammatical/punctual mistakes may be pointed out but will be awarded based on my mood. Let us work together so we can stay one step ahead of Nintendo and leave casualties to a minimum! CREDITS @Frexxos :For being the first to write up a questionnaire to pinpoint possible causes @SciresM :Write-ups on how Nintendo handles connections to their various online services @Thog :Created nx-dreport @Darien112 :Made an alternate Google Form for collecting data @OhhSheetz :Contains a link to this place in his thread @jjbredesen Publishing the thread on the new GDPR options for EUR Switch users @CrisFTW :Suggesting to start asking people about whether or not they are cert banned preemptively @tunip3 :Converting Reisyukaky's BogInstaller into eXhop @PatrickD85 Discovering a way to download eShop content without eXhop @VegaNovus :Came up with a way to trick Nintendo on how to un-link Nintendo Accounts from banned consoles @Dr.doom :Confirming with Nintendo he was banned due to clean error logs @PRAGMA :An illegal ROMID has been confirmed via an e-mail from Nintendo to have been the reason behind his ban And of course each and every single person who not only contributes their information but supports this endeavor!