Hi all, I have a NTSC-J Wii, a launch model, newest firmware except for the latest update (with the new Wii Shop Channel), and the Homebrew Channel installed (through the Twilight Hack). I use Gecko OS to play imports, which works great. I'd like to check out some obscure Japanese games, and read about the Backuploader from Wiigator, which sounds perfect for this purpose. Since you have to install a cIOS for this application, I'm trying to understand a little more how the Wii's software works. I've looked around a lot, and read all kinds of stuff on system updates, IOS *insert some random number between 5 and 51 here*, cIOS, firmwares, MIOS, BC, and so on, but still don't really have a clear picture of it. So, I hope somebody can explain this to me. Okay, so from what I understand, the Wii software is built up like this: First of all, some chip is called Starlet, which handles reading/writing data from internal memory, checks security stuff, handles WiFi, and probably other things. On some other piece of hardware, the Wii's firmware is installed, like 3.3J. When a game, or something in the system menu needs to execute a process, like checking if a disc is legit, the firmware calls a function that's stored in a certain IOS. The Starlet contains multiple IOS versions simultaneously. When new games use new functionality that doesn't exist in the previous IOSes, a new IOS version (and all previously release IOSes) are included on the disc, and installed if you want to play it. In case of security measures, I believe that some specific IOSes that are used by the System Menu are updated to newer versions. So, in a way, I think I can see IOSes as plugins/modules that add new functions that the System Menu or games can use. In that way, it makes sense that multiple IOSes are installed at the same time. From what I understand, Waninkoko has made some custom IOSes (cIOS), which you can install next to the existing official IOSes. With this cIOSes installed, which includes functionality like the ability to read normal DVDs, you can call these functions and hence use the added functionality in homebrew apps. You can uninstall the cIOSes as well, and never leave a trace that it was there. MIOS is some kind of compatibility layer that's activated when playing GC games. Not sure how it fits in the above though... WADs are like install files for channels, including VC games and WiiWare games as well. So, I'm wondering if I understood everything correctly so far. Even if I did, I have still quite some questions left though. What exactly does the firmware do? Why doesn't Nintendo just use a single IOS? Why don't they add that functionality to the firmware by updating that? How do cIOSes effect your Wii? Is it safe to install a cIOS and try out the Backuploader, or are there any risks (aside from bricking your Wii when you cut off the power during installing or something like that)? Hope you guys can help me out.