hey bitch, check it out, another topic! the blast continues! HAHAHAHAHAHAHHAHAHAHAHAHA no i'm not nuts! you shut up is not enough to stop me from raining near your parade! it needs to be trimmed Plagiarism From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Plagerism) Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Plagiarism (disambiguation). For Wikipedia policies concerning plagiarism, see Wikipedialagiarism and Wikipedia:Copyright violations. Plagiarism is defined in dictionaries as "the wrongful appropriation, close imitation, or purloining and publication, of another author's language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions, and the representation of them as one's own original work." The modern concept of plagiarism as immoral and originality as an ideal emerged in Europe only in the 18th century, while in the previous centuries authors and artists were encouraged to "copy the masters as closely as possible" and avoid "unnecessary invention." The 18th century new morals have been institutionalized and enforced prominently in the sectors of academia and journalism, where plagiarism is now considered academic dishonesty and a breach of journalistic ethics, subject to sanctions like expulsion and other severe career damage. Not so in the arts, which have resisted in their long-established tradition of copying as a fundamental practice of the creative process, with plagiarism being still hugely tolerated by 21st century artists. Plagiarism is not a crime but is disapproved more on the grounds of moral offence. It may be a case for civil law if it is sufficiently substantial to constitute copyright infringement. Contents [hide] * 1 Etymology and History * 2 Legal aspects * 3 In academia and journalism o 3.1 Journalism o 3.2 Sanctions for student plagiarism * 4 Plagiarism on the Internet * 5 Literary theft and other arts * 6 Praisings of plagiarism in art * 7 Self-plagiarism o 7.1 The concept of self-plagiarism o 7.2 Self-plagiarism and codes of ethics o 7.3 Factors that justify reuse * 8 As a practical issue * 9 Organizational publications * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links  Etymology and History The use of the Latin word plagiarius (literally kidnapper), to denote someone stealing someone else's work, was pioneered by Roman poet Martial, who complained that another poet had "kidnapped his verses." This use of the word was introduced into English in 1601 by dramatist Ben Jonson, to describe as a plagiary someone guilt of literary theft. The derived form plagiarism was introduced into English around 1615–25. The Latin plagiārius, "kidnapper", and plagium, "kidnapping", has the root plaga ("snare", "net"), based on the Indo-European root *-plak, "to weave" (seen for instance in Greek plekein, Latin plectere, both meaning "to weave"). The modern concept of plagiarism as immoral and originality as an ideal, emerged in Europe only in the 18th century. For centuries before, not only literature was considered "publica materies," a common property from which anybody could borrow at will, but the encouragement for authors and artists was actually to "copy the masters as closely as possible," for which the closer the copy the finer was considered the work. This was the same in literature, music, painting and sculpture. In some cases, for a writer to invent his own plots was reproached as presumptuous. This stood at the time of Shakespeare too, when it was common to appreciate more the similarity with an admired classical work, and the ideal was to avoid "unnecessary invention." The modern ideals for originality and against plagiarism appeared in the 18th century, in the context of the economic and political history of the book trade, which will be exemplary and influential for the subsequent broader introduction of capitalism. Originality, that traditionally had been deemed as impossible, was turned into an unrealistc mantra and obligation by the emerging ideology of individualism. In 1755 the word made it into Johnson's influential A Dictionary of the English Language, where he was cited in the entry for copier ("One that imitates; a plagiary; an imitator. Without invention a painter is but a copier, and a poet but a plagiary of others."), and in its own entry denoting both A thief in literature ("one who steals the thoughts or writings of another") and The crime of literary theft. Depite the 18th century new morals, and their current enforcement in the ethical codes of academia and journalism, the arts, by contrast, have resisted in their long-established tradition of copying as a fundamental practice of the creative process, and in the 21st century plagiarism is still hugely tolerated by artists.  Legal aspects Although plagiarism is some contexts loosely referred to as theft or stealing, from the point of view of the law, it is a non existing concept. The word "plagiarism" is not even mentioned any current statute, either criminal or civil. Only if the copying from the "plagiarized" is substantial, it may be brought up as a lawsuit on copyright infringement. Some cases may be treated as unfair competition, or a violation of the doctrine of moral rights. The increased availability of intellectual property due to a rise in technology has furthered the debate as to whether copyright offences are criminal. In short, people are asked to use this "imple tip: if you did not write it yourself, you must give credit."[unreliable source?] Plagiarism is not the same as copyright infringement. While both terms may apply to a particular act, they are different concepts. Copyright infringement is a violation of the rights of a copyright holder, when material protected by copyright is used without consent. On the other hand, the moral concept of plagiarism is concerned with the unearned increment to the plagiarizing author's reputation that is achieved through false claims of authorship.  In academia and journalism Within academia, plagiarism by students, professors, or researchers is considered academic dishonesty or academic fraud, and offenders are subject to academic censure, up to and including expulsion. In journalism, plagiarism is considered a breach of journalistic ethics, and reporters caught plagiarizing typically face disciplinary measures ranging from suspension to termination of employment. Some individuals caught plagiarizing in academic or journalistic contexts claim that they plagiarized unintentionally, by failing to include quotations or give the appropriate citation. While plagiarism in scholarship and journalism has a centuries-old history, the development of the Internet, where articles appear as electronic text, has made the physical act of copying the work of others much easier. For professors and researchers, plagiarism is punished by sanctions ranging from suspension to termination, along with the loss of credibility and integrity. Charges of plagiarism against students and professors are typically heard by internal disciplinary committees, which students and professors have agreed to be bound by.  Journalism Since journalism's main currency is public trust, a reporter's failure to honestly acknowledge their sources undercuts a newspaper or television news show's integrity and undermines its credibility. Journalists accused of plagiarism are often suspended from their reporting tasks while the charges are being investigated by the news organization. The ease with which electronic text can be reproduced from online sources has lured a number of reporters into acts of plagiarism: Journalists have been caught "copying-and-pasting" articles and text from a number of websites.  Sanctions for student plagiarism Unbalanced scales.svg An editor has expressed a concern that this article lends undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, controversies or matters relative to the article subject as a whole. Please help to create a more balanced presentation. Discuss and resolve this issue before removing this message. (August 2010) In the academic world, plagiarism by students is a very serious offense that can result in punishments such as a failing grade on the particular assignment (typically at the high school level) or for the course (typically at the college or university level). For cases of repeated plagiarism, or for cases in which a student commits severe plagiarism (e.g., submitting a copied piece of writing as original work), a student may be suspended or expelled. In many universities, academic degrees or awards may be revoked as a penalty for plagiarism. Students may feel pressured to complete papers well and quickly, and with the accessibility of new technology (the Internet) students can plagiarize by copying and pasting information from other sources. This is often easily detected by teachers for several reasons. First, students' choices of sources are frequently unoriginal; instructors may receive the same passage copied from a popular source from several students. Second, it is often easy to tell whether a student used his or her own "voice." Third, students may choose sources which are inappropriate, inaccurate, or off-topic. Fourth, lecturers may insist that submitted work is first submitted to an online plagiarism detector. There is little academic research into the frequency of plagiarism in high schools. Much of the research investigated plagiarism at the post-secondary level. Of the forms of cheating, (including plagiarism, inventing data, and cheating during an exam) students admit to plagiarism more than any other. However, this figure decreases considerably when students are asked about the frequency of "serious" plagiarism (such as copying most of an assignment or purchasing a complete paper from a website). Recent use of plagiarism detection software (see below) gives a more accurate picture of this activity's prevalence.  Plagiarism on the Internet Content scraping is a phenomenon of copy and pasting material from Internet websites, affecting both established sites and blogs. Free online tools are becoming available to help identify plagiarism, and there is a range of approaches that attempt to limit online copying, such as disabling right clicking and placing warning banners regarding copyrights on web pages. Instances of plagiarism that involve copyright violation may be addressed by the rightful content owners sending a DMCA removal notice to the offending site-owner, or to the ISP that is hosting the offending site. Plagiarism is not only the mere copying of text, but also the presentation of another's ideas as one's own, regardless of the specific words or constructs used to express that idea. In contrast, many so-called plagiarism detection services can only detect blatant word-for-word copies of text.  Literary theft and other arts Accuracy and/or neutrality dispute To comply with Wikipedia's quality standards, this section may need to be removed from this article. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. While plagiarism is condemned in academia and journalism, in the arts is often a major part of the creative process. An prominent example is music, where musical plagiarism and musical quotation, are widely accepted as standard practices. Prominent avant-gard composer John Zorn explained that the composition process of each of his pieces is based on the plagiarism from multiple sources that are patched together and transposed into his own aesthetic criteria. Similarly, in storytelling and literature, it is a practice common to all the major authors, to copy from parts of other works and transpose them in their own world. The value attributed to originality is also culturally contigent; some societies, like the one at the time of Shakespeare, instead used to appreciate more the similarity with an admired classical work, like in the case of Shakespeare's rewriting of Plautus' Menaechmi for The Comedy of Errors. Unlike in the academia world, in which references are expected to be cited explicitly and precisely, in literature they are usually not revealed or kept implicit. In painting, the practice of appropriation is historically well established tradition. In comics, the practice of Swipe (comics) widespread and major publication The Comics Journal kept a "Swipe File" column devoted to tracking cases.  Praisings of plagiarism in art This article may contain excessive, poor or irrelevant examples. You can improve the article by adding more descriptive text. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for further suggestions. (August 2010) A famous passage of Laurence Sterne's 1767 Tristram Shandy, condemns plagiarism by resorting to plagiarism. Oliver Goldsmith commented: Sterne's Writings, in which it is clearly shewn, that he, whose manner and style were so long thought original, was, in fact, the most unhesitating plagiarist who ever cribbed from his predecessors in order to garnish his own pages. It must be owned, at the same time, that Sterne selects the materials/ of his mosaic work with so much art, places them so well, and polishes them so highly, that in most cases we are disposed to pardon the want of originality, in consideration of the exquisite talent with which the borrowed materials are wrought up into the new form. On December 6, 2006, Thomas Pynchon joined a campaign by many other major authors to clear Ian McEwan of plagiarism charges by sending a typed letter to his British publisher, which was published in the Daily Telegraph newspaper. Playwright Wilson Mizner said "If you copy from one author, it's plagiarism. If you copy from two, it's research." American author Jonathan Lethem delivered a passionate defense of the use of plagiarism in art in his 2007 essay "The ecstasy of influence: A plagiarism" in Harper's. He wrote: "The kernel, the soul—let us go further and say the substance, the bulk, the actual and valuable material of all human utterances—is plagiarism" and "Don't pirate my editions; do plunder my visions. The name of the game is Give All. You, reader, are welcome to my stories. They were never mine in the first place, but I gave them to you."  Self-plagiarism Self-plagiarism (also known as "recycling fraud") is the reuse of significant, identical, or nearly identical portions of one’s own work without acknowledging that one is doing so or without citing the original work. Articles of this nature are often referred to as duplicate or multiple publication. In addition to the ethical issue, this can be illegal if copyright of the prior work has been transferred to another entity. Typically, self-plagiarism is only considered to be a serious ethical issue in settings where a publication is asserted to consist of new material, such as in academic publishing or educational assignments. It does not apply (except in the legal sense) to public-interest texts, such as social, professional, and cultural opinions usually published in newspapers and magazines. In academic fields, self-plagiarism is when an author reuses portions of their own published and copyrighted work in subsequent publications, but without attributing the previous publication. Identifying self-plagiarism is often difficult because limited reuse of material is both legally accepted (as fair use) and ethically accepted. It is common for university researchers to rephrase and republish their own work, tailoring it for different academic journals and newspaper articles, to disseminate their work to the widest possible interested public. However, it must be borne in mind that these researchers also obey limits: If half an article is the same as a previous one, it will usually be rejected. One of the functions of the process of peer review in academic writing is to prevent this type of "recycling".  The concept of self-plagiarism The concept of "self-plagiarism" has been challenged as self-contradictory or an oxymoron. For example, Stephanie J. Bird argues that self-plagiarism is a misnomer, since by definition plagiarism concerns the use of others' material. However, the phrase is used to refer to specific forms of potentially unethical publication. Bird identifies the ethical issues sometimes called "self-plagiarism" as those of "dual or redundant publication." She also notes that in an educational context, "self-plagiarism" may refer to the case of a student who resubmits "the same essay for credit in two different courses." As David B. Resnik clarifies, "Self-plagiarism involves dishonesty but not intellectual theft." According to Patrick M. Scanlon: "Self-plagiarism" is a term with some specialized currency. Most prominently, it is used in discussions of research and publishing integrity in biomedicine, where heavy publish-or-perish demands have led to a rash of duplicate and “salami-slicing” publication, the reporting of a single study's results in "least publishable units" within multiple articles. Roig (2002) offers a useful classification system including four types of self-plagiarism: duplicate publication of an article in more than one journal; partitioning of one study into multiple publications, often called salami-slicing; text recycling; and copyright infringement.  Self-plagiarism and codes of ethics Some academic journals have codes of ethics which specifically refer to self-plagiarism. For example, the Journal of International Business Studies. Some professional organizations like the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) have created policies that deal specifically with self-plagiarism. Other organisations do not make specific reference to self-plagiarism: The American Political Science Association (APSA) has published a code of ethics which describes plagiarism as "deliberate appropriation of the works of others represented as one's own." It does not make any reference to self-plagiarism. It does say that when a thesis or dissertation is published "in whole or in part", the author is "not ordinarily under an ethical obligation to acknowledge its origins." The American Society for Public Administration (ASPA) has published a code of ethics which says its members are committed to: "Ensure that others receive credit for their work and contributions," but it does not make any reference to self-plagiarism.  Factors that justify reuse Pamela Samuelson in 1994 identified several factors which excuse reuse of one's previously published work without the culpability of self-plagiarism. She relates each of these factors specifically to the ethical issue of self-plagiarism, as distinct from the legal issue of fair use of copyright, which she deals with separately. Among other factors which may excuse reuse of previously published material Samuelson lists the following: 1. The previous work needs to be restated in order to lay the groundwork for the contribution in the second work. 2. The previous work needs to be restated in order to lay the groundwork for a new contribution in the second work. 3. Portions of the previous work must be repeated in order to deal with new evidence or arguments. 4. The audience for each work is so different that publishing the same work in different places was necessary to get the message out. 5. The author thinks they said it so well the first time that it makes no sense to say it differently a second time. Samuelson states she has relied on the "different audience" rationale when attempting to bridge interdisciplinary communities. She refers to writing for different legal and technical communities, saying: "there are often paragraphs or sequences of paragraphs that can be bodily lifted from one article to the other. And, in truth, I lift them." She refers to her own practice of converting "a technical article into a law review article with relatively few changes—adding footnotes and one substantive section" for a different audience. Samuelson describes misrepresentation as the basis of self-plagiarism. She seems less concerned about reuse of descriptive materials than ideas and analytical content. She also states “Although it seems not to have been raised in any of the self-plagiarism cases, copyrights law’s fair use defense would likely provide a shield against many potential publisher claims of copyright infringement against authors who reused portions of their previous works."  As a practical issue In addition to legal and ethical concerns, plagiarism is frequently also a practical issue, in that it is frequently useful to consult the sources used by an author, and plagiarism makes this more difficult. There are a number of reasons why this is useful: * An author may commit an error in how they interpret or use a source, and consulting the original source allows these errors to be detected. * Authors generally only supply the portions of prior works that are directly relevant to the work at hand. Other portions of their sources are likely to be relevant to later extensions and generalizations of their work. * As modern automated indexing methods become prevalent, references between works provide valuable information about their authoritativeness and how closely works are related; this helps to locate relevant works.  Organizational publications Plagiarism is presumably not an issue when organizations issue collective unsigned works since they do not assign credit for originality to particular people. For example, the American Historical Association's "Statement on Standards of Professional Conduct" (2005) regarding textbooks and reference books states that, since textbooks and encyclopedias are summaries of other scholars' work, they are not bound by the same exacting standards of attribution as original research and may be allowed a greater "extent of dependence" on other works. However, even such a book does not make use of words, phrases, or paragraphs from another text or follow too closely the other text's arrangement and organization, and the authors of such texts are also expected to "acknowledge the sources of recent or distinctive findings and interpretations, those not yet a part of the common understanding of the profession." Within an organization, in its own working documents, standards are looser but not non-existent. If someone helped with a report, they may expect to be credited. If a paragraph comes from a law report, a citation is expected to be written down. Technical manuals routinely copy facts from other manuals without attribution, because they assume a common spirit of scientific endeavor (as evidenced, for example, in free and open source software projects) in which scientists freely share their work. The Microsoft Manual of Style for Technical Publications Third Edition (2003) by Microsoft does not even mention plagiarism, nor does Science and Technical Writing: A Manual of Style, Second Edition (2000) by Philip Rubens. The line between permissible literary and impermissible source code plagiarism, though, is apparently quite fine. As with any technical field, computer programming makes use of what others have contributed to the general knowledge.  See also Wikiversity has learning materials about Plagiarism * Abuse of information * Academic dishonesty * Assemblage * Contract cheating * Copyscape (website for detecting Internet plagiarism) * Copyright * Copyright infringement * Credit (creative arts) * Cryptomnesia * Détournement * Essay mill * Fair use * Joke thievery * Journalism scandals (plagiarism, fabrication, omission) * Ghostwriter * Homage * List of plagiarism controversies * Multiple publication * Musical plagiarism * Parody * Pastiche * Personal boundaries * Plagiarism detection * Scientific misconduct * Source criticism * Swipe (comics)  References 1. ^ From the 1995 Random House Compact Unabridged Dictionary: use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one's own original work qtd. in Stepchyshyn, Vera; Robert S. Nelson (2007). Library plagiarism policies. Assoc of College & Resrch Libraries. p. 65. ISBN 0838984169. <a href="http://books.google.es/books?id=OHamIn5dPR8C" target="_blank">http://books.google.es/books?id=OHamIn5dPR8C</a>. 2. ^ From the Oxford English Dictionary: the wrongful appropriation or purloining and publication as one’s own, of the ideas, or the expression of the ideas… of another qtd. in Lands (1999) 3. ^ a b c d e f g h Lynch, Jack (2002) The Perfectly Acceptable Practice of Literary Theft: Plagiarism, Copyright, and the Eighteenth Century, in Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation 24, no. 4 (Winter 2002–3), pp.51–54. Also available online since 2006 at Writing World. 4. ^ a b Will, Frederic (1963) Publica materies, in Arion 5. ^ a b c Royal Shakespeare Company (2007) The RSC Shakespeare - William Shakespeare Complete Works, Introduction to the Comedy of Errors, p.215 quote: while we applaud difference, Shakespeare's first audiences fovoured likeness: a work was good not because it was original, but because it resembled an admired classical exemplar, which in the case of comedy meant a play by Terence or Plautus 6. ^ a b c Lindey, Alexander (1952) Plagiarism and Originality, Greenwood Press, Connecticut 7. ^ a b Edward Young (1759) Conjectures on Original Composition 8. ^ a b c d Alfrey, Penelope (2000) Petrarch's Apes: Originality, Plagiarism and Copyright Principles within Visual Culture, February 17, 2000 9. ^ a b c Lands, Robert (1999) Plagiarism is no Crime published by The Association of Illustrators (AOI), December 1999. Quote: Plagiarism may be a taboo in academia, but in art some might say it is almost essential. 10. ^ a b Louisiana State University[dead link] 11. ^ Valpy, Francis Edward Jackson (2005) Etymological Dictionary of the Latin Language, p.345 entry for plagium, quote: "the crime of kidnapping." 12. ^ Burke, Peter (1974) Tradition and Innovation in Renaissance Italy p. 154 13. ^ Loewenstein, Joseph (2002) Ben Jonson and possessive authorship, p.3, Cambridge University Press 14. ^ Samuel Johnson (1755) A Dictionary of the English Language. Entry for copier in Volume I, p.480. Entry for plagiary in Volume II, p.335. 15. ^ masterm, Reddit 16. ^ Kock, N. (1999). A case of academic plagiarism. Communications of the ACM, 42(7), 96–104. 17. ^ Kock, N., & Davison, R. (2003). Dealing with plagiarism in the IS research community: A look at factors that drive plagiarism and ways to address them. MIS Quarterly, 27(4), 511–532. 18. ^ Clarke, R. (2006). Plagiarism by academics: More complex than it seems. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 7(2), 91–121. 19. ^ List of cases of plagiarism among journalists[dead link] 20. ^ Klein A. (June 8, 2007). "Opinion: Why Do They Do It?". The New York Sun. <a href="http://www.nysun.com/article/56158" target="_blank">http://www.nysun.com/article/56158</a>. Retrieved 2007-12-11. 21. ^ Hart, M.; Friesner, Tim (December 15, 2004). research Plagiarism and Poor Academic Practice – A Threat to the Extension of e-Learning in Higher Education?. Electronic Journal of E-Learning. <a href="http://www.ejel.org/volume-2/vol2-issue1/issue1-art25.htm" target="_blank">http://www.ejel.org/volume-2/vol2-issue1/issue1-art25.htm</a> research. Retrieved 2007-12-11 22. ^ Authorship gets lost on Web. USA Today 23. ^ Online plagiarism strikes blog world. Boston.com 24. ^ CNET.com Webpronews.com 25. ^ Duckworth, William (1999) Talking Music, Da Capo Press (ISBN 0-306-80893-5), pp.449-50 quote: I used to copy the scores over and see how the things would work [...] it's very similar to what I'm doing now in terms of the plagiarism involved. [...] You could call it stealing, you could call it quoting, you could call it a lot of different things. Basically, it's like I'd hear a sound element in a Bartok section and I'd say, "That sounds neat," so I'd take that section out of the score and transcribe it into my own notation. [...] Then, I'd hear an Elliott Carter theme that I thought was neat, so I'd take out of the score and put it someplace else. [...] In a lot of ways it's got a collage element to it, but it's not so much what you're taking as it is how you transform it into your own world. 26. ^ Laurence Sterne Tristram Shandy, Vol V, Chap. 1 27. ^ Mark Ford Love and Theft london Review of Books Vol. 26 No. 23 · 2 December 2004 pages 34–35 | 4103 words 28. ^ Oliver Goldsmith The vicar of Wakefield: a tale, Volume 5 p.xviii 29. ^ Pynchon, Thomas. Letter to the Daily Telegraph newspaper, December 6, 2006. 30. ^ Quoted by Stuart B. McIver, Dreamers, Schemers and Scalawags, Pineapple Press, Sarasota, Florida, 1994. ISBN 1-56164-034-4. 31. ^ Jonathan Lethem (February 2007). "The ecstasy of influence: A plagiarism". Harper's Magazine. <a href="http://www.harpers.org/archive/2007/02/0081387" target="_blank">http://www.harpers.org/archive/2007/02/0081387</a> 32. ^ See for example Dellavalle, Robert P., Banks, Marcus A. and Ellis, Jeffrey I. (2007). "Frequently asked questions regarding self-plagiarism: How to avoid recycling fraud." Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, Vol. 57 (3), September, pp.527. doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2003.10.071 33. ^ See Allow me to rephrase, and boost my tally of articles, by Rebecca Attwood, Times Higher Education Supplement, 3 July 2008 34. ^ Hexham, I. (2005). "Academic Plagiarism Defined". <a href="http://www.ucalgary.ca/~hexham/study/plag.html" target="_blank">http://www.ucalgary.ca/~hexham/study/plag.html</a>. 35. ^ a b c d e Samuelson, P. (1994). "Self-Plagiarism or Fair Use?" Communications of the ACM, 37(August): 21–25. 36. ^ Broome, Marion E. (2004). "Self-plagiarism: oxymoron, fair use, or scientific misconduct?" Nursing Outlook, Vol. 52 (6), November, pp.273–274.  37. ^ "Self-plagiarism and Dual and Redundant Publications: What Is the Problem?". Springerlink.com. <a href="http://www.springerlink.com/content/w4r30223m162h804/" target="_blank">http://www.springerlink.com/content/w4r30223m162h804/</a>. Retrieved 2010-08-02. 38. ^ See Resnik, David B. (1998). The Ethics of Science: an introduction, London: Routledge. p.177, notes to chapter six, note 3. Online via Google Books 39. ^ "Scanlon, Patrick M. (2007). "Song from myself: an anatomy of self-plagiarism." ''Plagiary: cross-disciplinary studies in plagiarism, fabrication and falsification'', Vol. 2 (1), pp.1–11". Quod.lib.umich.edu. <a href="http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=plag;view=text;rgn=main;idno=5240451.0002.007" target="_blank">http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/text-...240451.0002.007</a>. Retrieved 2010-08-02. 40. ^ Blancett, Flanagin, & Young, 1995; Jefferson, 1998; Kassirer & Angell, 1995; Lowe, 2003; McCarthy, 1993; Schein & Paladugu, 2001; Wheeler, 1989 41. ^ Journal of International Business Studies. "JIBS Code of Ethics". Palgrave-journals.com. <a href="http://palgrave-journals.com/jibs/jibs_ethics_code.html" target="_blank">http://palgrave-journals.com/jibs/jibs_ethics_code.html</a>. Retrieved 2010-08-02. 42. ^ "ACM Policy and Procedures on Plagiarism". October 2006. <a href="http://www.acm.org/publications/policies/plagiarism_policy" target="_blank">http://www.acm.org/publications/policies/plagiarism_policy</a>. 43. ^ American Political Science Association,  Section 21.1 44. ^ American Society for Public Administration, [www.aspanet.org/scriptcontent/index_codeofethics.cfm] 45. ^ a b "Statement on Standards of Professional Conduct". American Historical Association. 2005-01-06. <a href="http://www.historians.org/PUBS/Free/ProfessionalStandards.cfm" target="_blank">http://www.historians.org/PUBS/Free/Profes...alStandards.cfm</a>. Retrieved 2009-04-16.  Further reading * Von Grunebaum, Gustave E. (1944) The Concept of Plagiarism in Arabic Theory Journal of Near Eastern Studies  External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Plagiarism * American Historical Association, "Statement on Standards of Professional Conduct" (2005) * What is the price of plagiarism? A The Christian Science Monitor article * The Assessment in Higher Education web site's plagiarism page contains links to a variety of resources (articles, books, cheat sites, etc.). * "Plagiary: Cross-disciplinary Studies in Plagiarism, Fabrication, and Falsification." journal: Journal website and online archive * The Plagiarism Advisory Service Provides advice and guidance to UK and International learning institutions. * Copyright Infringement archive at UCLA School of Law * Citation Plagiarism * Deja Vu: A Database of Duplicate Citations in the Scientific Literature * Public radio host reading from Wikipedia Examples of transmedia content scraping. * "Plagiarism Lines Blur for Students in Digital Age" Trip Gabriel, The New York Times, 1 August 2010 p1ngpong? could it be you? don't be deleting non offensive eof topics. it's plain rude. thank you I realize that you try to keep order in the forums. and for that i applaud but when my topics are getting reformatted and deleted and moved without my consent and withoutjust reason i feel offended. i came back to the forum to have a good time, but it's more like a military state in here. so please stop doing that.