Most USB adapters do not have the capability to do softmod based modding, if you hardmod (TSOP or mod chip) then that changes but not plain softmods.
If you are using softmods (be it splinter cell and co or hotswap) and a normal motherboard with relevant connector then yes you can. You will either need the eeprom (and thus HDD keys) to unlock it and lock it afterwards or to do the hotswap method (boot, allow it to unlock and then keeping it powered transfer it to the PC to fiddle with, there are guides to it all on the internet. Do remember to connect the chassis of the xbox to your PC chassis).
If you are going to tell me you only have a laptop and thus need the adapter then that is unfortunate. It is not impossible that an adapter has the ability to handle drive locking, however we don't even have a list of models to look for.