Do you know what is "Acid" ?

Discussion in 'The Edge of the Forum' started by rest0re, Mar 1, 2008.

Mar 1, 2008

Do you know what is "Acid" ? by rest0re at 4:20 PM (1,964 Views / 0 Likes) 21 replies

  1. rest0re
    OP

    Member rest0re GBAtemp Advanced Fan

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    Acid is
    it's music
    Just so you know...
     


  2. Ace Gunman

    Former Staff Ace Gunman ~••Lucky҉Shot••~

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    I'll kick your ass, Sid.
     
  3. bobrules

    Member bobrules GBAtemp Advanced Maniac

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  4. Westside

    Member Westside Sogdiana

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    An acid (often represented by the generic formula HA [H+A-]) is traditionally considered any chemical compound that, when dissolved in water, gives a solution with a hydrogen ion activity greater than in pure water, i.e. a pH less than 7.0. That approximates the modern definition of Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and Martin Lowry, who independently defined an acid as a compound which donates a hydrogen ion (H+) to another compound (called a base). Common examples include acetic acid (in vinegar) and sulfuric acid (used in car batteries). Acid/base systems are different from redox reactions in that there is no change in oxidation state.

    Definitions

    The word "acid" comes from the Latin acidus meaning "sour," but in chemistry the term acid has a more specific meaning. There are four common ways to define an acid:

    * Arrhenius: According to this definition developed by the Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius, an acid is a substance that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+), which are carried as hydronium ions (H3O+) when dissolved in water, while bases are substances that increase the concentration of hydroxide ions (OH-). This definition limits acids and bases to substances that can dissolve in water. Around 1800, many French chemists, including Antoine Lavoisier, incorrectly believed that all acids contained oxygen. Indeed the modern German word for oxygen is Sauerstoff (lit. sour substance), as is the Afrikaans word for oxygen suurstof, with the same meaning. English chemists, including Sir Humphry Davy at the same time believed all acids contained hydrogen. Arrhenius used this belief to develop this definition of acid.
    * Brønsted-Lowry: According to this definition, an acid is a proton (hydrogen nucleus) donor and a base is a proton acceptor. The acid is said to be dissociated after the proton is donated. An acid and the corresponding base are referred to as conjugate acid-base pairs. Brønsted and Lowry independently formulated this definition, which includes water-insoluble substances not in the Arrhenius definition.
    * solvent-system definition: According to this definition, an acid is a substance that, when dissolved in an autodissociating solvent, increases the concentration of the solvonium cations, such as H3O+ in water, NH4+ in liquid ammonia, NO+ in liquid N2O4, SbCl2+ in SbCl3, etc. Base is defined as the substance that increases the concentration of the solvate anions, respectively OH-, NH2-, NO3-, or SbCl4-. This definition extends acid-base reactions to non-aqueous systems and even some aprotic systems, where no hydrogen nuclei are involved in the reactions. This definition is not absolute, a compound acting as acid in one solvent may act as a base in another.
    * Lewis: According to this definition developed by Gilbert N. Lewis, an acid is an electron-pair acceptor and a base is an electron-pair donor. (These are frequently referred to as "Lewis acids" and "Lewis bases," and are electrophiles and nucleophiles, respectively, in organic chemistry; Lewis bases are also ligands in coordination chemistry.) Lewis acids include substances with no transferable protons (ie H+ hydrogen ions), such as iron(III) chloride, and hence the Lewis definition of an acid has wider application than the Brønsted-Lowry definition. In fact, the term Lewis acid is often used to exclude protic (Brønsted-Lowry) acids. The Lewis definition can also be explained with molecular orbital theory. In general, an acid can receive an electron pair in its lowest unoccupied orbital (LUMO) from the highest occupied orbital (HOMO) of a base. That is, the HOMO from the base and the LUMO from the acid combine to a bonding molecular orbital.

    Although not the most general theory, the Brønsted-Lowry definition is the most widely used definition. The strength of an acid may be understood by this definition by the stability of hydronium and the solvated conjugate base upon dissociation. Increasing or decreasing stability of the conjugate base will increase or decrease the acidity of a compound. This concept of acidity is used frequently for organic acids such as carboxylic acid. The molecular orbital description, where the unfilled proton orbital overlaps with a lone pair, is connected to the Lewis definition.

    Properties

    Bronsted-Lowry acids:

    * Are generally sour in taste
    * Strong or concentrated acids often produce a stinging feeling on mucous membranes
    * React to indicators as follows: turn blue litmus and methyl orange red, do not change the color of phenolphthalein
    * Will react with metals to produce a metal salt and hydrogen
    * Will react with metal carbonates to produce water, CO2 and a salt
    * Will react with a base to produce a salt and water
    * Will react with a metal oxide to produce water and a salt
    * Will conduct electricity, depending on the degree of dissociation
    * Will produce solvonium ions, such as hydronium (H3O+) ions in water
    * Will denature proteins

    Strong acids and many concentrated acids are dangerous, causing severe burns for even minor contact. Acids are corrosive. Generally, acid burns are treated by rinsing the affected area abundantly with running water (15 minutes) and followed up with immediate medical attention. In the case of highly concentrated acids, the acid should first be wiped off as much as possible, otherwise the exothermic mixing of the acid and the water could cause severe thermal burns. Acids may also be dangerous for reasons not related to their acidity, see an appropriate MSDS for more detailed information.
     
  5. Verocity

    Member Verocity Ö!

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    Thank you wikipedia. :rofl2:
     
  6. Westside

    Member Westside Sogdiana

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  7. PuyoDead

    Member PuyoDead Hey! Hey! Oh!

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    lysergic acid diethylamide? perhaps? perhaps no? meh.
     
  8. Ace Gunman

    Former Staff Ace Gunman ~••Lucky҉Shot••~

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    *Walks over carrying a vial of acid*

    [​IMG]

    *I trip over rest0re's missing dignity and the acid vial tumbles from my hands, breaking upon hitting the ground*

    ...

    I just dropped acid! [​IMG]
     
  9. Westside

    Member Westside Sogdiana

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    Lysergic acid diethylamide, LSD, LSD-25, or acid, is a semisynthetic psychedelic drug of the ergoline family. Probably the best known psychedelic, it has been used mainly as a recreational drug, an entheogen, and a tool to supplement various practices for transcendence, including in meditation, psychonautics, art projects, and illicit (though at one time legal) psychedelic psychotherapy, whether self-administered or not. It is synthesized from lysergic acid derived from ergot, a grain fungus that typically grows on rye and was first synthesized by Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann. The short form LSD comes from its early codename LSD-25, which is an abbreviation for the German "Lysergsäure-diethylamid" followed by a sequential number.[1][2]

    LSD is sensitive to oxygen, ultraviolet light, and chlorine, especially in solution, though its potency may last years if it is stored away from light and moisture at low temperature. In pure form it is colorless, odorless and mildly bitter.[2] LSD is typically delivered orally, usually on a substrate such as absorbent blotter paper, a sugar cube, or gelatin. In its liquid form, it can be administered by intramuscular or intravenous injection. The threshold dosage level needed to cause a psychoactive effect on humans is of the order of 20 to 30 µg (micrograms).

    Introduced by Sandoz Laboratories as a drug with various psychiatric uses, LSD quickly became a therapeutic agent that appeared to show great promise. However, the extra-medicinal use of the drug in Western society during the mid-twentieth century led to a political firestorm that resulted in the banning of the substance.[3] A number of organizations—including the Beckley Foundation, MAPS, Heffter Research Institute and the Albert Hofmann Foundation—exist to fund, encourage and coordinate research into its medicinal uses.[4]
     
  10. rest0re
    OP

    Member rest0re GBAtemp Advanced Fan

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    No, drugs sucks. You know what is acid when you hear it.
     
  11. Orc

    Member Orc ‎(ღ˘⌣˘ღ)

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    Acid is lip-smacking delicious.
     
  12. rest0re
    OP

    Member rest0re GBAtemp Advanced Fan

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    What seriously! Kids don't you know what is aciiiiiiiiiiiied ?! I'll show you what is aciiiiied!
    [​IMG]
     
  13. Linkiboy

    Member Linkiboy GBAtemp Testing Area

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    *trips over spilled acid*

    I'm tripping acid.
     
  14. blueskies

    Member blueskies GBAtemp Advanced Fan

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    westside, that vid is an acid trip.

    cid is fun, but scary! have a friend handy to talk you down...
     
  15. Orc

    Member Orc ‎(ღ˘⌣˘ღ)

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  16. EvanUnisil

    Member EvanUnisil GBAtemp Regular

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    Orc, I watched the whole thing. I'm never having unprotected sex again.
     
  17. Vater Unser

    Member Vater Unser GBAtemp Addict

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  18. Salamantis

    Member Salamantis GBAtemp Advanced Maniac

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    OLD. Saw it a long time ago, I had a good laugh [​IMG]
     
  19. rest0re
    OP

    Member rest0re GBAtemp Advanced Fan

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    that's acid man!
     
  20. scubersteve

    scubersteve Newbie

    BUMP!
    My l337 skillz make this revival a pointless one.

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